Low Flow Groundwater Sampling has become an increasingly approved method for obtaining high quality groundwater samples. The US EPA released standard operating procedures for low flow sampling (EPA/540/S-95/504). Following such guidelines ensures the collection of samples that are representative of actual in-situ conditions. Low flow purging and sampling involves extracting groundwater at rates comparable to ambient groundwater flow (typically less than 500 ml/min), so that the drawdown of the water level is minimized, and the mixing of stagnant water with water from the screened intake area in a well is reduced. Stabilization of parameters (pH, D.O., conductivity, temperature, etc.) and turbidity of the purged water are monitored before a sample is taken, thus low flow ground water sampling ethods facilitate equilibrium with the surrounding formation and produce samples that are truly representative of the formation water.
Please select a journal that you would like to view papers from during the time period that you have selected.